Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Basic aims and methods The growth of various disciplines in the 19th century, notably psychology and sociology, stimulated a more analytic approach to religions, while at the same time theology became more sophisticated and, in a sense, scientific as it began to be affected by and thus to make use of historical and other methods.
Either the universe had a beginning or it did not.
If it did, either that beginning was caused or it was not caused. If it was caused, either the cause was personal or it was impersonal. Based on these dilemmas, the argument can be put in the following logical form: Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. The universe began to exist.
Therefore, the universe has some kind of cause of its existence. The cause of the universe is either an impersonal cause or a personal one. The cause of the universe is not impersonal.
Therefore, the cause of the universe is a personal one, which we call God. This version of the cosmological argument was bolstered by work in astrophysics and cosmology in the late twentieth century.
On one interpretation of the standard Big Bang cosmological model, the time-space universe sprang into existence ex nihilo approximately Such a beginning is best explained, argue kalam defenders, by a non-temporal, non-spatial, personal, transcendent cause—namely God. The claim that the universe began to exist is also argued philosophically in at least two ways.
First, it is argued that an actual infinite set of events cannot exist, for actual infinities lead to metaphysical absurdities. Since an infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite set of events, such a regress is metaphysically impossible.
So the past cannot be infinite; the universe must have had a temporal beginning. A second approach begins by arguing that an infinite series of events cannot be formed by successive addition one member being added to another.
The reason why is that, when adding finite numbers one after the other, the set of numbers will always be finite. The addition of yet another finite number, ad infinitum, will never lead to an actual infinite.
Since the past is a series of temporal events formed by successive addition, the past could not be actually infinite in duration. Nor will the future be so. The universe must have had a beginning. Many objections have been raised against the kalam argument, both scientific and philosophical, including that there are other cosmological models of the universe besides the Big Bang in which the universe is understood to be eternal, such as various multi-verse theories.
Philosophical rebuttals marshaled against the kalam argument include the utilization of set theory and mathematical systems which employ actual infinite sets. Teleological Arguments Teleological arguments in the East go back as far as C.
In the West, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics offered arguments for a directing intelligence of the world given the order found within it. There is an assortment of teleological arguments, but a common theme among them is the claim that certain characteristics of the natural world reflect design, purpose, and intelligence.
These features of the natural world are then used as evidence for an intelligent, intentional designer of the world.
The teleological argument has been articulated and defended at various times and places throughout history, but its zenith was in the early nineteenth century with perhaps its most ardent defender: In his book, Natural Theology, Paley offers an argument from analogy: Artifacts such as a watchwith their means to ends configurations, are the products of human design.
The works of nature, such as the human hand, resemble artifacts.Sociology Quizzes Chapters STUDY. PLAY. 1.
Three main trends, however, can be noted: (1) the attempt to analyze and describe the nature of religion in the framework of a general view of the world; (2) the effort to defend or attack various religious positions in terms of philosophy; and (3) the attempt to analyze religious language. Philosophy of religion draws on all of the major areas of philosophy as well as other relevant fields, including theology, history, sociology, psychology, and the natural sciences. There are a number of themes that fall under the domain of philosophy of religion as it is commonly practiced in academic departments in North America and Europe. Start studying Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Which sociologist was perhaps the first sociologist to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies? The teacher-expectancy effect reflects the views of which sociological perspective?
According to the sociological perspective, people's behavior: • There was a stronger attempt to ground sociological concepts and theories in facts and data. theory is superfluous to sociological research. The Chapel Hill Murders & Hate Crimes By Mediha Din In this post, Mediha Din explores what a hate crime is, types of hate crimes, and sociological explanations of prejudice.
Karl Marx’s Theory of Religion: Definition, Sources, Ideology and Criticism Article shared by: After reading this article you will learn about Marxism and Religion: 1.
Sociological and anthropological theories of religion generally attempt to explain the origin and function of religion. These theories define what they present as universal characteristics of religious belief and practice. Explain the views of religion held by the conflict perspective. Conflict theory: Religion reinforces and promotes social inequality and social conflict.
It helps convince the poor to accept their lot in life, and it leads to hostility and violence motivated by religious differences. Sociological Perspectives on Religion by. Ch 15 Quiz Religion. STUDY. A sociologist following which theory would agree with this statement?
a) A symbolic interactionist b) A conflict theorist Which of the following is NOT true of the sociological perspective on religion? a) Religion is a system of beliefs. b) Religion is a cultural universal.