His principle of equal consideration of interests does not dictate equal treatment of all those with interests, since different interests warrant different treatment. All have an interest in avoiding pain, for instance, but relatively few have an interest in cultivating their abilities.
The Nature of Philosophy Methods and definitions Philosophy has almost as many definitions as there have been philosophers, both as a subject matter and an activity.
Its investigations are based upon rational thinking, striving to make no unexamined assumptions and no leaps based on faith or pure analogy.
Different philosophers have had varied ideas about the nature of reason, and there is also disagreement about the subject matter of philosophy. Some think that philosophy examines the process of inquiry itself. Others, that there are essentially philosophical propositions which it is the task of philosophy to prove.
The issue of the definition of philosophy is nowadays tackled by Metaphilosophy or the philosophy of philosophy. Modern usage of the term is extremely broad, covering reflection on every aspect of human knowledge and the means by which such knowledge can be acquired.
In the contemporary English-speaking academic world, the term is often used implicitly to refer to analytic philosophy and, in non-English speaking countries, it often refers implicitly to a different, European strain, continental philosophy.
Until the Renaissance'philosophy' and 'science' were considered the same discipline. Many ancient Greek philosophers distinguished the desire for wisdom from desires for material things, vices, and the satisfaction of bodily desires.
The definition of wisdom for many ancient Greeks would have been about virtue and the desire for knowledge as opposed to false opinions. However, the term is notoriously difficult to define because of the diverse range of ideas that have been labeled as philosophy.
The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy defines it as the study of "the most fundamental and general concepts and principles involved in thought, action, and reality. However, these points are called into question by the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, which states: Philosophy as a Worldview A "philosophy" may also refer to a general worldview or to a specific ethic or belief that can be utterly unrelated to academic philosophical considerations.
This meaning of the term is perhaps as important as the classical definition, because it affects each human being.
Virtually everyone, knowingly or unknowingly, lives and operates based upon a set of values and beliefs that are often unexpressed and even unconscious.
As a result, the may easily be incompatible and contradictory, leaving those who maintain them with a sense of uneasiness. However, it is most likely to be at odds with other convictions held by that same individual, such as a secret passion for art or love for his family. Branches, schools and doctrines Branches The ancient Greeks organized the subject into five basic categories: This organization of the subject is still partly in use in Western philosophy today, but the notion of philosophy has become more restricted to the key issues of being, knowledge, and ethics.
There are many places where these subjects overlap, and there are many philosophical ideas that cannot be placed neatly into only one of these categories. Thus, philosophy involves asking questions such as whether God exists, what is the nature of reality, whether knowledge is possible, and what makes actions right or wrong.
More specifically, each branch has its own particular questions. How do we distinguish arguments from premises to conclusions as valid or invalid? How can we know that a statement is true or false?
How do we know what we know? What kinds of questions can we answer?Deontology deals with actions in a situation while utilitarianism examines the consequences of those actions.
While polar opposites on the broad spectrum of ethics, deontology and utilitarianism are bioethical theories that can be applied to nursing practice and personal life situations. Explore the ethical theory of utilitarianism, founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
Then test your understanding of how the principles of this theory work through a short quiz. Until the Renaissance, 'philosophy' and 'science' were considered the same caninariojana.com earlier tradition remains today in the expression PhD, or “Philosophiae Doctor” (doctor of philosophy), which is by no means limited to graduates of philosophy proper, as one can have a PhD in biology, music, or nursing to name but a few areas of expertise.
Utilitarianism vs Deontology Morality has it tha people will justify or not the end and the means. Not only that it directs individuals to do what is right or wrong; moreover, it makes them do what is . Deontology vs. Utilitarianism Deontology is an ethical theory concerned with duties and rights.
The founder of deontological ethics was a German philosopher named Immanuel Kant. Kant’s deontological perspective implies people are sensitive to moral duties that require or prohibit certain behaviors, irrespective of the consequences (Tanner, Medin, & Iliev, ).
There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham () and John Stuart Mill ().