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Download this article in. PDF format This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable. It may be surprising to learn that many engineers with great talent and a depth of experience have a hard time answering questions about the type s of manufacturing environments that exist in their company.
Most manufacturing environments fit into one of five general categories. Most companies use more than one of these environments to get a single The production process out the door. Vertically integrated companies often had all five environments.
Speeding up or slowing down the speed of the operation modulates differences in customer demand.
There is little setup and changeover activity. If the peak line speed cannot keep up with demand, a second line is added. If demand is not enough for a dedicated second line, it is met by a second line operating in Discrete mode that also makes other products.
This environment is highly diverse. It covers a range from few setups and changeovers to frequent setups and changeovers. The products being made may be alike or highly disparate. The more unlike the products are, the longer is the unproductive set-up and tear-down time.
Job shops rarely have production lines, they have production areas. The area may assemble only one version of a product, a dozen versions, or even a couple dozen. If demand grows, the operation is turned into a discrete line and selected labor operations are replaced by automated equipment.
These three environments, taken together, are a continuum for mechanical, electromechanical, electronic, and software-driven hardware products.
At one end, manufacturing is continuous. At the other end, it is highly intermittent. The more repetitive production is, the more likely the environment is dominated automated equipment.
Production personnel rarely touch the product; their role is to oversee the equipment and assure it functions properly. Designers at the Discrete end, with Job Shop being the ultimate case of Discrete, must be versed in product design and know when to involve equipment instead of labor for production.
Designers in Job Shop environments generally cannot justify automated production equipment and must be expert in parsing the design so that components and subassemblies are made or acquired economically. They must also be expert in understanding how their design can be manually assembled.
The remaining two environments have many analogies to those just described. The product is usually described by a formula plus a bill of materials. The primary difference is that production materials are gases, liquids, powders, or slurries. In some cases, such as mining, they can be granular or chunky materials.
Design considerations are analogous, except the disciplines to create final product and production process are more diverse. Batch-process operations are analogous to Discrete and Job Shop. Sometimes one batch is all it takes to meet demand.
Sometimes it takes several batches. The equipment is then cleaned and the next product run. In some cases, Batch processes can be continuous in nature, making one batch after another of the same product. This is common when the composition of raw materials cannot be made to a strict standard.
Each batch must be analyzed and some change made to the original formulation to turn out a final product that meets the spec.
Again, design considerations are analogous and the disciplines are more diverse. Find out how 3D printing has become the sixth manufacturing process in my MD Aug column.At one end, manufacturing is continuous.
At the other end, it is highly intermittent. Designers at the continuous end must be versed not only in the product’s design, but also the design of the process equipment. The more repetitive production is, the more likely the environment is . § Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, Adopted (a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.
2 How HP Business Process HP Business Process Testing can be customized to Testing works HP Business Process Testing introduces the concept of reusable business components for test design. production - Traduzione del vocabolo e dei suoi composti, e discussioni del forum.
Improve the Productivity of ANY Discrete Parts Manufacturing Process, Including Equipment Without Native Data Connectivity ProductionACE Manufacturing Operations Management and OEE Software works with a family of Machine Data Transducers (MDT) to provide real-time connectivity with ANY discrete manufacturing process.
7. The Production Process TRANSMITTAL Once it is complete and properly prepared, your final manuscript will be transmitted into production; that is, the hard copy, electronic manuscript, and art originals will be handed off to the production department by your editor.